Annotated Bibliography 2

Stop Thinking. Stop Pondering. Stop Strategizing. Stop Debating. Start Doing.


When being introduced to the NAMES project, I witnessed an array of multiple different quilts and panels in the design of blocks in order to symbolize the immense negative breakthrough that HIV/AIDS had on specific areas around the world. This project is built around each student being able to choose between thousands of panels to conduct research upon. To be honest, at the beginning of this English course I was unable to descriptively depict what type of project this was going to be and I have to say that this is something that completely different than anything I have ever done before. An amazing experience to be able to examine the strengths and weaknesses of different writing skills and habits that come with this project. While assisting my peers and my teacher in the NAMES project I am learning how to analyze certain sources and topics to be able to incorporate those into my writing techniques. Additionally, through these techniques, I am learning through my professor, peers, through my own mistakes and attempts to be a better writer and even a decent journalist which are traits that will carry on with me for the rest of my life.

Nevertheless, in this project, we were able to pick from the thousands of said panels among groups of quilts that were also known as blocks. We were sent to a certain area that housed the quilts in order for us to travel to and see in the person of which panel(s) that we chose. The panel I chose showed the subject’s name in big bold letters that were on the cover of a bold red background. This background not only sheds a very strong shade of red but also alighted a colorful and extravagant rainbow which were sprinkled with many musical notes. Additionally, there was something special that also caught my eye which could be described as both the art style and simplistic nature of the bright hue, warm-colored front. Not only that but I believe the person I chose had a great affinity for animals, nature, and music due to the musical notes, rainbow and little brown dog pictured towards the bottom of the panel. These musical notes were scattered so peacefully all over the beautiful panel in such a way that caught my eyes and ultimately led to me choosing such a panel.

James William Popejoy, also known by the nickname of Jimmy Popejoy, was a middle son in a family of five boys. With the coming questions that I had, I knew there were many I could not leave unanswered and that in itself encouraged my research.


Archer, Marlee “HIV/AIDS: A growing Atlanta epidemic” Georgia State Signal, 2015

This source is authored by a woman by the name of Marlee Archer who is a freelance writer who just so happens to be a Georgia State Alumni and who also happens to be doing research on the same topic as me. As a student who attends Georgia State and somewhat heedless towards the true ultimatum that remains of HIV in our residing city, I remain full of questions and engaged towards the issue. Additionally, Marlee uses very relevant studies that express the globalization of the epidemic that is HIV/AIDS not to mention but she took the initiative to dive deep into the source of her own area in Atlanta. In her article, she represents the majority of the students that attend school Atlanta which range between the ages of 13 to 24 according to The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

“The CDC also states Atlanta is ranked the fifth highest city for new HIV diagnoses in its 2013 report.” This shows the seriousness and gravity of this situation that envelopes over the city of Atlanta.  “Andres F. Camacho-Gonzalez MD, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at Emory University, said he believes these statistics are indicative of an HIV epidemic in Atlanta, which he defines as a high number of new documented HIV infections.” is something that may not be underestimated as a minor problem that will blow over within time. By backing many of her arguments with thorough research and solid support sources, I say that this source will be very useful in the stride I will be taking for assisting in the N.A.M.E.S Project.


“Despite Atlanta being a city that is leading the way with African American businesses, philanthropy, entertainment and politics, there is one aspect that is tearing the city down: its HIV rate. It’s gotten so bad that it is a public health emergency.” This is a statement made by Dr. P. Gould that not only represents the truth but also sets the overall depth of the situation that Atlanta seems to be going through. Although seems somewhat of a simple and straightforward statement, this spreads out to not only represent the city of Atlanta but also representing problems in external areas as well, which relates to my research.

In the research of this source, I see that Dr. P. Gould dives into the main argument that Atlanta’s HIV rate is so grave and so severe it is like that of a third world country. I use this source as part of my analysis because this is relatable to my research on South Africa and will assist me in my systematic study of sex and HIV infection rates.

Kristine L. Dunkle, Rachel K. Jewkes, Heather C. Brown, Glenda E. Gray, James A. McIntryre, Sioban D. Harlow “Transactional sex among women in Soweto, South Africa: prevalence, risk factors and association with HIV infection” Science Direct, 2004 (Scholarly Source)*

It is with great evidence and research that this source proves to be useful in using the information gathered from high HIV rates in South Africa to also explain the many issues that also take part in Atlanta. In this article, they take the course of explaining that prostitutes are an example of air fanning the flames, thereby acting as an additional reason why the infection rates are increasing. This problem in South Africa relates so greatly to my research upon the comparisons of other areas to Atlanta because of the fact that Atlanta also has the issue of human trafficking and prostitution.

Nevertheless, what makes this article exclusively and especially important is because they dig deeper into the roots of the issue. This also ties in with my first source being that this article also puts demographics into play which is considering who are the “general people” that are infected with this virus. “The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such transactional sex among women attending antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa, to identify demographic and social variables associated with reporting transactional sex, and to determine the association between transactional sex and HIV serostatus.” Additionally, it is worth noting that this source may be overlooked by many because of the date that this article was initially published however I argue that this source still remains valuable and viable to this day due to the fact that these issues are created and inflated through the same means which is sex. The main issue that lies is because that this such an inflating issue, people are becoming discriminated for their infection, people of the LGBT community are discriminated against often for the same matter. I argue that there are many times where people may need to look in the past to solve current problems and this article will assist me in such a subject.


John E. Anderson, Laura Kann, Deborah Holtzman, Susan Arday, Ben Truman and Lloyd Kolbe “HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Behavior Among High School Students” JSTOR, 1990 (Scholarly Source)*

This source is a provided article that expresses the attitudes and behaviors between high school students of the subject of HIV/AIDS. Simply enough, I wish to use this article as a source for my research mainly because this is partly an example of how HIV/AIDS can affect a number of people depending on the area and age of the victims. Of course, this area can vary but unambiguously this source is set in the country of America and more specifically the high schools that reside within. Additionally, I use this article not only as a source but mostly as support for my argument towards whether students are respectively being taught the potential health risks of HIV/AID.

It can be respected as I use this source even as it is from 1990 because compared to recent research, this will show the difference in the changes that we have made in the knowledge of HIV in America. As what I said in my prior source, how can we possibly ever move forward as human beings without being able to prevent reoccurring problems? In many cases we must look back and see how much we have solved and achieved thereby, continuing to use former research so we not only prevent the same problems from happening again but by also finding new solutions by providing an even deeper analysis. Moreover, this article also provides a thorough examination of the HIV/AIDS education that was taught in the surrounding schools of America. “By the end of September 1990, more than 147,000 cases of AIDS had been reported in the United States, some of these represent young adults who engaged in risk behaviors during their adolescent years. To control the spread of the AIDS virus, effective education programs aimed at adolescents are essential.” Using this source will provide strong support usage with my ongoing and future arguments thereby increasing credibility and awareness with the information I use in my research.

AIDSVu – HIV Prevalence Rates, 2010-2015

This source is not an article but simply statistics on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS. This website gives you a clear, outright picture that describes the condition of which the city of Atlanta is in. They give the statistics of Prevalence, New Diagnoses, Mortality, Demographics, rates of sexually transmitted diseases etc. While articles may be the way many other students and scholars are gathering their information on this project, I argue that there also needs to be placed for straight data and informal stats as well. Correspondingly, there are ways to share statistics through articles of course, but I feel that this is a simpler way to directly show the relationship between written information and numeral information. However, this source is not supposed to completely differ you from sources that consist of written articles or journals alike, but to bring demographics and variance into the topic.

This website shows many relations between HIV diagnoses in Atlanta and in surrounding Georgia thereby showing you that Atlanta makes up a big portion while being compared in the graphs provided. Additionally, as I said prior, these websites bring varying demographics into realization, the estimated HIV prevalence rate of black males living with an HIV diagnosis is 4.7 times that of white males and black females are 14.1 times that of white females. Similarly, an estimated amount of 70% of people living with diagnosed HIV in 2015 was Black, 7% Hispanic/Latino and 19% White. In future interpretation, you can use these statistics however you want to for further study. This source provides numerous doors to different outlooks upon examination and can be especially used for research of such work that I am doing for my N.A.M.E.S Project. “Reducing New HIV Infections”, 2017

HIV remains prominent in our society and arguably becomes the main subject of Atlanta’s medical matters. “An estimated 37,600 HIV infections are diagnosed each year, according to the most recent CDC data. The Federal approach to reducing new HIV infections is based on the best available scientific evidence and modeling studies have informed decisions about the allocation of resources with regard to the strategies employed, geography, and the populations at greatest risk.”

The information this source provides is the usage of activities and tactics that will help reduce HIV Infections. “There are now more options than ever before to reduce the risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV and the newest methods are even more effective than those that were available earlier. These include personal actions that people can take to protect themselves like abstinence, having only one partner with the same HIV status, and choosing less risky behaviors, as well as risk reduction tools, services, and interventions that are delivered by health care providers, public health departments, community-based organizations and others.” I feel as though looking upon this source will grant insight into the research I am doing.

Jacqueline Lewis, Michael R. Fraser “Patches of grief and rage: Visitor responses to the NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt” Springer Link, 1996 (Scholarly Source)

The NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt is a significant social response to the AIDS epidemic. As the largest piece of folk art ever created, the Quilt is a monumental testament to the lives lost to AIDS. The Quilt’s size and emotional impact make it an awesome spectacle. The enormity of the Quilt, however, is not what makes it important sociologically. Instead, what makes the Quilt an important sociological phenomenon is the manner in which it is used symbolically to commemorate the dead, providing an outlet for collective grieving and inspiring social action.” (Page 434, Lewis Fraser) As a student who is representing the NAMES Project at the college of GSU I can say without hindrance that this source provides a strong backbone to my examination by including additional facts and opinions about the Project I am assisting in.

Of course, this source is an extreme necessity to my study mainly because it is distinctly a direct figure in the subject of my NAMES Project. This journal gives me a load of understanding on what I should be focusing on when examining my Panel.

Mark A. Rayfield “HIV Culture” Springer Link, 1994

This source is from the same website as the prior source that I used. I stumbled upon this one while reading up on the previous due to looking for similar subjects. This source relates on a different scale while using the title of “HIV Culture” thereby demonstrating the collective group efforts that have been helping solve the overall matter. Of course, my previous sources may be in a statistical or written form, ultimately using such evidence to prove a point, This source goes deeper into the topic of medicine and specifically the science of it.

“Although serologic assays are capable of identifying prior exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), they cannot alone demonstrate whether an individual is currently harboring the virus. The first method used to ascertain if a blood specimen contained HIV was co-cultivation with stimulated primary human lymphocytes or continuous human T cell lines and monitoring the culture supernatants for the presence of reverse transcriptase.” Although this is something that may be hard to understand for someone who has not dabbled into anything dealing with the knowledge of medicine, this is very important in my case due to the subject being of a dangerous virus.

The author of this article uses an explanation of “virus culture” as a way to define the reasoning behind virus isolation and identifying new variants of such viruses. Albeit this source may not be ahead of the foothold when it comes to using sources towards my research, however, I argue this something that you cannot refuse to be acknowledged.


National Research Council “The Social Impact Of AIDS In The United States” NCBI, 1993

The social impact of Aids is the complete embodiment of the subject that I am focusing on when working on this project. The Nation Research Council consists of scientists, scholars, health professionals and researchers that assist in the study of not only Human behavior but also medical sciences and health education of that sort. These researchers have provided information upon the main center of my research which is the tainted social aspect that comes with HIV infections that occur in the surrounding areas.

It is explained in this article that the researchers of the National Research Council dive deep into the informational waterfall that is human life. They research the behaviors of HIV through religion which can lead to discrimination by expressing homosexuality and such. This can also include potential risk of HIV infection to and from healthcare workers, coping with HIV infection in prisons and most importantly, in my opinion, the impact of AIDS on community-based organizations.


Sonja L. Myhre, June A Flora “HIV/AIDS Communication Campaigns: Progress and Prospects” (Scholarly Source) Tandfonline, 2010

“The mass media has been the primary method for disseminating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention messages worldwide. In this article, we update previous reviews by systematically examining published articles of empirical evaluations of international HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns. Of the 41 studies identified, 17 countries are represented. In this review, we examine six components related to media campaign design and evaluation: target audience, communication channel(s), message content, campaign theme, exposure, and outcomes.”

As said in the introduction of the article, this journal represents the communication that HIV/AIDS victims have with the media and other communities. Communication among HIV victims and those who do not have HIV/AIDS may be anything but a strong connection due to the discrimination and the ideology people have as explained in some of my first sources. In my analysis, this information towards human behaviors in combination with the resources of the National Research Council will prove convenient